Cyber Security

Hybrid Cyber Threats: Lithuanian Context


This academic paper conducts a comprehensive analysis of hybrid cyber threats within the Lithuanian context, focusing on the examination of national strategies formulated to address and mitigate these complex challenges. Hybrid cyber threats, characterized by the amalgamation of traditional cyber methods with elements of disinformation, psychological warfare, and geopolitical manipulation present unique challenges to national security. This study explores how Lithuania’s national strategies have evolved to counteract these multifaceted threats, offering insights into the effectiveness of current approaches, and identifying potential areas for improvement.

The research employs a comparative analysis of Lithuania’s historical and contemporary national cybersecurity strategies, examining their alignment with the evolving nature of hybrid cyber threats. By evaluating the integration of cybersecurity measures with broader national security policies, the study aims to uncover the strengths and weaknesses in Lithuania’s preparedness and response mechanisms.

The Evolution of Chinese Cyber Offensive Operations and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)


The increasing level of confrontation evident in global affairs and competition between different political philosophies are being fought across a broad spectrum of diplomatic, informational, military, and economic areas. Russia, China, and Iran are just three examples of nations which represent alternative forms of government and governance that have employed both kinetic and non-kinetic tools to achieve influence and to compete with the interests of other nations and political ideologies. This paper focuses on the employment of Chinese cyber offensive operations to achieve strategic objectives in the Southeast Asian region, aligned to the Made in China 2025 and 14th Five Year Plans. It examines the structure and nature of Chinese cyber operations as they have evolved over the past seven years.

Supporting Automated Monitoring, Event Detection, and Response with Visualization and the MOSAICS JCTD Environment


The MOSAICS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) is poised to impact the way defenders protect IT/OT blended networks by demonstrating how currently available defense tools can be leveraged to automatically respond to potential incidents and provide insight into the structure and behavior of networks. By fusing the information from several customizable tools into a series of focused displays, the visualization component of the MOSAICS system supports defenders through automated monitoring, event detection, and response in a single platform.

Review of Cyber Security and Policy Implementation within South African Health Institutions


The evolution in digital technologies and the Internet, in particular, has had a profound effect on the way healthcare institutions operate, assist patients, and manage personal healthcare data. In the same vein, various healthcare systems, particularly Electronic Health Information Technology (EHIT), present new opportunities for different healthcare institutions. As the exposure to and use of the Internet in the health sector continue to increase, so have the opportunities and benefits offered to applicable stakeholders. However, threats to the security, privacy, availability, and integrity of healthcare data and systems have also increased. 

Preparing for the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Recommendations to Adapt Cyber Security Governance and Skills in South Africa


As the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is unfolding in the society around us, gaps and opportunities are revealed in terms of cyber security governance and policy responses. Therefore, within this article, the shortcomings of cyber security implementation in South Africa are identified and recommendations are made in terms of cyber security governance, policy, education, and awareness. In terms of governance, the maturity of South Africa’s implementation systems is analyzed using the international metric systems.

Utilisation of the Cyber Security Challenge for Learning within the South African Perspective


Globally, cyber security is one of the fastest growing fields—where the number of cyber warfare and jobs for cyber defense professionals far outpaces the number of available professionals. Industry and government professionals in South Africa who have seen and experienced these gaps are involved in various initiatives to support cyber security education. One such initiative is the annual Cyber Security Challenge, with the main aim to introduce students to the real-world applications of cyber security, to motivate them to consider a career path in this industry, and to expose them to cyber warfare and defence as career options.

Australia Critical Infrastructure Protection: A Twenty-Year Journey


The aim of the paper is to describe Australia’s national Cyber Security strategy development since the late 1990s to the 2020s. A common theme is that the management of Australia’s commercial critical infrastructure has presented ongoing challenges to industry and the government. A key issue of the Australian situation is that that the majority of critical infrastructure resides under the control of the business sector and not under direct government control. The paper also describes the new Cyber Security critical infrastructure issues associated with the COVID-19 situation.

The Persuasion Game: Serious Gaming Information Warfare and Influence


In an age of hybrid, asymmetric, and non-linear conflict, the role of Information Operations has become increasingly important. This paper presents a research project examining ways of better enabling stakeholders to respond to the increasing use of influence in warfare, in hybrid conflict, in competition, and in the realms of hard and soft politics. The project consisted of an international, cross-sector research group that drew on military, government, academic, and industry expertise in order to understand the best way to employ wargame influence. The use of wargaming as a training/research tool is familiar in military and civil contexts; the project discussed presents a truly innovative approach to influence studies, and shows the benefits of an interdisciplinary, cross-domain research team.

Information Security, Personality, and Justifications for Norm Violation


Human factors account for 27% of data breaches on the global scale. Even with clear and often strict policies in place, employees are often considered to be the weakest link in the field of Information Security (IS. This paper seeks to find one explanation for this phenomenon in military context by exploring military cadets’ personalities, as well as their reasons and justifications for using neutralisation techniques in order to deviate from organisational IS regulations. The results of this paper emphasise that a more personalised approach to IS education could be useful.

A Cyber Counterintelligence Matrix for Outsmarting Your Adversaries


While Cyber CounterIntelligence (CCI) has been a distinctive specialisation field for state security structures internationally for well over a decade, recently there has been growing recognition of CCI’s significance to non-state actors. CCI is central to proactively mitigating cyber risk and exploiting opportunities. With the growing recognition of CCI’s significance comes an appreciation of its complexity. CCI is all about outthinking and outwitting adversaries. This article advances a conceptual matrix that can serve both as a high-level ‘pocket guide’ for outsmarting adversaries and as an aid to academic research.

Assessing Cyber Security Threats and Risks in the Public Sector of Greece


Organisations having to cope with new threats and risks are increasing their focus and looking at novel ways to improve their cyber security assurance. As critical national infrastructures are becoming more vulnerable to cyberattacks, their protection becomes a significant issue for EU member states. The National Cyber Security Authority of Greece (NCSA) takes all necessary steps towards a secure Greek cyberspace.

Adversarial Artificial Intelligence: State of the Malpractice


ArtificialIntelligence (AI), widely deployed in society, is rapidly becoming the next major battleground. Our society depends on the power of AI to solve problems in multiple domains—including commercial, infrastructural, and military systems. But AI is also vulnerable to a variety of attacks, some of which are common across many types and deployments of AI.

Towards a Literature Review on Cyber Counterintelligence


For those connecting the dots, the threat landscape continues to affirm the necessity of having Cyber Counterintelligence (CCI) at the centre of cybersecurity efforts. Concurrent with the growing interest in CCI in corporate boardrooms and the corridors of governments, CCI is evolving from a field of academic enquiry to a distinctive academic sub-discipline. 

Developing a Cyber Operations Computational Ontology


Cyber operations lack models, methodologies, and mechanisms to describe relevant data and knowledge. This problem is directly reflected when cyber operations are conducted, and their effects assessed, and it can produce dissonance and disturbance in corresponding decision-making processes and communication between different military actors.

Best Practices for Designing and Conducting Cyber-Physical-System War Games


Cyber war games have been shown to be useful for a broad range of purposes. The authors describe and compare  methods for  designing  realistic war games  in  the  domain of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), review general methods for conducting war games, and illustrate best practices to assist researchers and practitioners in planning their own war games. 

Projected Territoriality: A Case Study of the Infrastructure of Russian Digital Borders


This  article  attempts  to  demonstrate  how  territoriality  can  be  projected  into cyberspace with respect to the infrastructure of a country. It is a case study of the delineation, protection, and control processes of Russia’s so-called digital borders. By combining analysis of border studies, information technology studies, and Russian studies, this article provides an interdisciplinary overview of the infrastructure of the Russian segment of the Internet and examines the principles and practises behind the Russian implementation of the concept of a national  segment  of  the Internet as an infrastructural element of delineating digital borders and achieving a functional digital sovereignty.

Towards a Reconceptualisation of Cyber Risk: An Empirical and Ontological Study


The prominence and use of the concept of cyber risk has been rising in recent years. This paper presents empirical investigations focused on two important and distinct groups within the broad community of cyber-defence professionals and researchers: (1) cyber practitioners and (2) developers of cyber ontologies.

Uncertain Security Community: Building Western Cyber-Security Order


Leading NATO countries (such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France) are rather like-minded when it comes to cyber-threat assessments and cyber-security policy priorities. They share common security values and norms and identify common cyber threats. In this regard, they can be identified as members of the same security community. However, when it comes to strategies for building cyber security, there is disparity among them.

Cyber Apprenticeship: A Traditional Solution to a Vexing New Problem


This paper proposes a new approach to a relatively new and often vexing problem facing many businesses today: meeting the growing demands for a trained and certified cyber-security workforce. The proposed approach uses the traditional apprenticeship model, combined with the targeting of rural candidates as a mechanism to develop a greater loyalty to any firm making the investment.

Cyber Security in the Context of Armenia-NATO Cooperation


NATO is one of the main actors in the development and modernisation of the national security architecture of Armenia. One of the main research goals of the authors is to understand the qualitative and quantitative framework of Armenia-NATO cooperation. From this perspective, the authors of this article analyse cyber-security cooperation between Armenia and NATO based on DOTMLPF II components.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.















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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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