Data

Proving It Is the Data That Is Biased, Not the Algorithm Through a Recent South African Online Case Study

Abstract:

In the recent past, some Internet users questioned the reliability of online news, but not necessarily the role of search engines in programming public discourse. In 2018, South African Twitter users accused Google of peddling misinformation when Google Image searches for the phrase “squatter camps in South Africa” displayed images of white squatter camps. Many analysts blamed Google’s algorithm for displaying bias. In this article, the authors use this example in comparing the findings of six different search engines to counter this argument. Search engines that are diverse in their scope and origin are used to prove that is it not the algorithm, but rather the data that is biased.

The ‘Flexibility’ of Official Information During Contemporary Conflicts

ABSTRACT

This paper examines perception management as practiced by governments and the militaries of Western nations since 1980. It examines this topic using the framework of a simple model of information. Basically, it defines information as that product formed when data meets cognition. Contemporary conflicts and their associated information campaigns are examined. It postulates about the impact these practices will have on the democratic process in these nations.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

Keywords

C

C2
C2S
CDX
CIA
CIP
CPS

D

DNS
DoD
DoS

I

IA
ICS

S

SOA

X

XRY

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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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