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A Taxonomy of Norms in Cyberconflict for Government Policymakers

Abstract:

Cyberconflict provides a new set of challenges to the Law of Armed Conflict. The proposals in the recent Tallinn Manual 2.0 provide a good start, but they are incomplete and do not address important issues. Where laws are lacking, states adopt norms to provide consistency and deterrence. This article provides a broad taxonomy of cyberconflict norms for use by government policymakers, including norms for low-level cyberconflict, norms for starting cyberconflict, norms for conducting it, and norms for post-conflict operations. It also introduces the concept of ‘metanorms’, norms for handling other norms.

War Crimes from Cyber-Weapons

ABSTRACT

As information warfare capabilities have grown in recent years, the possibilities of war crimes with cyber-attacks have increased.  The main ethical problems of cyber-weapons in regard to ruses, secrecy, and collateral damage are examined, and analogies drawn to biological weapons.  It argues that most cyber-attacks are instances of perfidy, and spread so easily that they can approach biological weapons in their uncontrollability.  Then mitigation techniques for cyber-weapons in the form of more precise targeting, reversibility, and self-attribution are considered.  The paper concludes with a survey of some methods for prosecution and punishment of cyber-war crimes including forensics, interventions, cyber-blockades, and reparations, and proposes a new kind of pacifism called 'cyber-pacifism'.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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