A Taxonomy of Norms in Cyberconflict for Government Policymakers


Cyberconflict provides a new set of challenges to the Law of Armed Conflict. The proposals in the recent Tallinn Manual 2.0 provide a good start, but they are incomplete and do not address important issues. Where laws are lacking, states adopt norms to provide consistency and deterrence. This article provides a broad taxonomy of cyberconflict norms for use by government policymakers, including norms for low-level cyberconflict, norms for starting cyberconflict, norms for conducting it, and norms for post-conflict operations. It also introduces the concept of ‘metanorms’, norms for handling other norms.

Security-Information Flow in the South African Public Sector


Information-security management programs are becoming increasingly important in enabling organisations to promote a high level of accountability and good governance. Organisations need accurate and relevant real-time information to make effective and efficient decisions pertaining to cyber threats and attacks. Based on a qualitative study, this article introduces and discusses the components of an information-security management program.

Pearl Harbor 2.0: When Cyber-Acts Lead to the Battlefield


America is under constant attack in cyberspace. Which of these attacks equate to a Pearl Harbor or the terrorists' acts on September 11?

Cyber Terrorism: An Examination of the Critical Issues


This paper examines the critical issues relevant to Cyber terrorism. A review of the literature indicates that incidences of computer crime and cyber terrorism are increasing. The cyber attacks on the U.S.’s critical infrastructure are no longer random, but rather are coordinated and precise. The types of attacks are discussed and documented instances are examined. Lastly, policy recommendations are discussed that to further assist the U.S. in defending its critical infrastructures and essential operations.

Combating Cyber Terrorism: Improving Analysis and Accountability


This paper will attempt to assess issues and strategies related to Cyber Terrorism. It examines the missions/objectives, resources, threats, systemic issues and policies related to combating the problem. The paper suggests possible measures to improve the ability to deal with Cyber Terrorism. One is to improve coordination between existing independent resources toward the goal of creating a CYBERINT Analysis Center. Another is to improve accountability and identification of Internet users.

NATO and Strategic PSYOPS: Policy Pariah or Growth Industry?


In the aftermath of 9/11, among many other changes to its defense establishment, the United States has undertaken a significant re-vamping of its strategic psychological operations (PSYOPS) structure and capabilities.xxxviii Similarly, NATO must now determine if it can adapt and face the realities of the modern security environment -- where current and potential threats to peace will confront NATO through asymmetric means rather than through the use of conventional military forces. Of particular interest in this study, are unconventional attempts to confront NATO via aggressive regional and international perception manipulation.

Australian Defence Force Policy and the use of WPA2 as a Security Option for Deployment of 802.11 Wireless Networks in the Field


The wireless function is an under utilised resource for many military organisations. Until recently, Defence wireless local area network assessments have highlighted wireless inadequacies in relation to data security and the protection of sensitive information. But since the introduction of WPA2 and the acquisition of wireless applications into U.S Dept. of Defence networking infrastructure, global defence departments are testing wireless applications for advantages in the military domain. This paper examined WPA2’s security mechanisms and their relationship with the Australian Defence Force policy and military operational environments. Though still officially unacknowledged in the Australian military landscape, WPA2 offers a robust security solution that can potentially provide the Australian Defence Force with the networking flexibility that only wireless delivers. The analysis conducted here suggests that the use of wireless networks to support military operations when secured using WPA2 methods is feasible.

Critical Infrastructure Protection Policy: The Israeli Experience


This article presents the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) policy in Israel and analyses its evolution. Israel established a centralist national critical infrastructure protection system in late 2002, which was implemented rather harmoniously. However, the evolving cyber-environment has led to renewed discussions. After years of discontent, a comprehensive review of national cyber-posture was conducted in 2011. Significant policy changes, fostering coordinated cooperation between public, security, academic, and private sectors, are now in progress. This examination of the Israeli CIP approach may assist policy-making in other countries.

I Want My Smartphone. I Want It Now. And I Want to Connect to Everything from Anywhere… Now!


Even the classified enterprise is going mobile. Trolls and Luddites cannot prevent it. But the bridge to be crossed to mobility nirvana (a secure, cheap, and user-beloved system) is still rickety with many places where one can fall into the chasm of lost data. The forces of malware, user sloth, shoddy component design, and poor system architecture are arrayed against safe passage. But one is not alone. Assisting the crossing are a number of laws requiring privacy and security measures, government programs that induce superior products, policies written for both public and private sector enterprises, standards bodies, and, most of all customers demanding security from vendors. This paper will look at the mobility mission, the threat to mobile, the secure enterprise architectures using defense in depth, the state of security in system components and how that is being improved through a number of efforts, and the impact of new technology.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.















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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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