Volume 8, Issue 2

Volume 8, Issue 2 Editorial

Stylized Image of the Word Editorial


Welcome to the 23rd edition of the Journal of Information Warfare. As usual there are a variety of topics covered in the papers. In the first paper, Ramluckan and Niekerk explore the relationship between the media and terrorism. This is followed by Flaherty, who compares the difference between two and three dimensional tactics and their relevance to counter-terrorism. Then Ma investigates the use of Extended Evolutionary Games Theory and research into strategic information warfare. This issue closes with Sloggett and Sloggett giving their opinion on the changes in the narrative surrounding the ‘Global War on Terrorism’.

The Terrorism/Mass Media Symbiosis


With the advancement of communications technologies the media has evolved in parallel, reaching wider audiences with rapidly decreasing times to air the latest breaking story. The modern mass media has become a primary source of information for the public; consequently they turn to the media when disaster strikes. Likewise, terrorism has evolved, aiming their messages at more global audiences, resulting in far more audacious and spectacular incidents to grab the attention of the media, which provide a means to spread their message and gain recognition. This paper investigates the relationship between terrorism and the media, and establishes a Terrorism/Mass Media Symbiosis.

2D Versus 3D Tactical Supremacy in Urban Operations


This paper revises Boyd’s OODA loop incorporating 3D tactics. 3D tactics is defined as tactics in the third dimension which is the space above and below ground level in land and urban operations. This paper investigates the key difference between 3D tactics and more conventional tactics, based on people thinking linearly, which in effect is a form of two-dimensional tactical analysis (2D Tactics). This problem is also fundamentally linked to developing a counter terrorism analysis applicable to mass gathering space in civil urban places, which is not adequately addressed in contemporary tactical theory; which however is addressed by Boyd’s OODA loop incorporating 3D tactics.

A New Extended Evolutionary Game Theory Approach to Strategic Information Warfare Research


The extended evolutionary game theory (EEGT) extends traditional evolutionary game theory (EGT) with survival analysis and agreement algorithms. Survival analysis, a branch of modern biostatistics, is adopted to model the consequences of the so-termed UUUR (Uncertain, latent, Unobserved or Unobservable Risks) events. Agreement algorithms can be the Agreement algorithms from the traditional fault-tolerant distributed computing or any problem-specific (user-defined) algorithms (constraints) that allow game players to dynamically check and 'vote' for a possible consensus. The EEGT was initiated in the study of reliability and survivability of distributed computer networks and is particularly suitable for addressing critical issues such as dynamic uncertainty, vulnerability, frailty, and deception, which are often associated with distributed systems under stressed environments where the occurrence of UUUR events is the norm. Strategic information warfare (SIW) clearly falls within the scope of such systems. In this paper, the EEGT is introduced to the modelling of SIW from a three-layer (tactical, strategic and operational levels) perspective.  When applied to SIW, a tertiary extension to EEGT with hedging principle is necessary at the operational level, similar to the application of the EEGT to survivability analysis.

Reframing the Narrative of the Global War on Terrorism


The election of President Obama has created a unique opportunity for the United States in the Muslim world. President Bush’s over-aggressive tone played a large part in alienating opinion and fanning the flames of anti-Americanism, as Muslims felt that he was a warmonger and unwilling to compromise. Obama’s recent speech in Cairo showed his appreciation that a line must be drawn under this and a new approach taken. While key policy continuities remain, Obama is approaching these issues from a fundamentally different angle – he seeks, and appears to seek, engagement; Bush, too many Muslims, appeared to seek confrontation.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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