Volume 13, Issue 4

Volume 13, Issue 4 Editorial

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October 2014

These papers were selected from a number of outstanding presentations at the 13th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ECCWS ’14) conducted in Athens, Greece at the University of Piraeus. These eight articles represent a wide breadth and depth of international participation from a number of countries and show a broad spectrum of expertise across a holistic view of Cyber Warfare.

An Annotated Bibliographical Survey on Cyber Intelligence for Cyber Intelligence Officers


Since 2008, Cyberspace is officially regarded as a distinct military domain, along with land, sea, and air for many countries (Goel 2011). The nature of warfare in cyberspace is radically different than traditional warfare: the attacks are more remote, stealthy, and detecting the identity of the adversary may be impossible (Greengard 2010). Nations need intelligence in this relatively new domain of war in order to know the strengths and weaknesses of other nations and themselves. This paper presents a literature survey on computer science methodologies that can be useful for intelligence officers working in cyberspace.

Cybersecurity Economics: Induced Risks, Latent Costs, and Possible Controls


Financial decisions indirectly affect and are affected by the effort towards Information Security. The ‘Economics of Cybersecurity’ should thus constitute a significant part of the Information Security Posture Assessment process and should be directly addressed in this context. As the complexity and interdependency of Information Systems augments and new technologies lead to the de-materialisation of Information Systems assets, it becomes progressively evident that the conflicting interests and incentives of the various stakeholders of an Information System affect its overall Information Security Posture, perhaps even more significantly than technical or policy limitations do. This paper examines economic considerations from an Information Systems Security/Cybersecurity viewpoint and proposes new directions that may both help reduce the problem from a collective point of view, as well as lead to the creation of methodologies to ultimately integrate economics, along with technical and non-technical issues, into an Organisation’s Information Security Posture Assessment process.

Improving Cyber-Security Awareness on Industrial Control Systems: The CockpitCI Approach


Cyber-threats are one of the most significant problems faced by modern Industrial Control Systems (ICS), such as SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems, as the vulnerabilities of ICS technology become serious threats that can ultimately compromise human lives. This situation demands a domain-specific approach to cyber threat detection within ICS, which is one of the most important contributions of the CockpitCI FP7 project (http://CockpitCI.eu). Specifically, this paper will present the CockpitCI cyber-detection and analysis layer, including a description of its components, in terms of role, operation, and remote management.

Cyber Counterintelligence: Back to the Future


It is generally accepted that conventional cyber security generally has failed.  As such, Cyber Counterintelligence (CCI) is fast gaining traction as a practicable approach to secure and advance our own interests effectively. To be successful, CCI should be an integral part of multi-disciplinary Counterintelligence (CI)–conceptually and in practice. With a view to informing sound CCI practice, this paper conceptualises CCI as a part of CI. It proceeds with going back to some time-tested CI constructs and applies these to the cyber realm. In so doing, this paper aims to offer a few building blocks toward a future of sound CCI theory and practice.

An Academic Approach to Digital Forensics


Digital forensics as a field of study creates a number of challenges when it comes to the academic environment. The aim of this paper is to explore these challenges in relation to learning and teaching theories. We discuss our approach and methods of educating digital forensic investigators based on the learning axioms and models, and we also present the learning environments we develop for our scholars.

Developing a Strategic Framework for Managing Security in SCADA Systems


The Internet, originally an open distributed system, has gradually evolved into a complex network as a platform for global connectivity. Today, the Internet hosts complex electronic and engineering systems (such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition – SCADA – systems) deployed to manage critical infrastructures. The Internet has become a platform for transporting high volumes of critical information worldwide. Securing sensitive information and safeguarding operations of critical infrastructure management systems has become critical. SCADA systems are deployed, complex operations that play a vital role in managing critical resources. This paper elaborates on the need for a holistic approach for managing the security of complex infrastructures and recommends a strategic model for security management of SCADA systems.

Birds of a Feather Deceive Together: The Chicanery of Multiplied Metadata


New Media conventions have fluttered along unforeseen flight paths. By combining sock-puppetry with the grouping power of metadata it is possible to demonstrate widespread influence through Twitter dispersion. In one nest there is a growing use of sock-puppetry accentuated by the exploitation of a social media that does not attempt to verify proof of identity. Created identities in their thousands can flock towards, and in support of, a single identity. They do so alongside legitimate accounts but in concert remain imperceptible within an overall group. In another nest there is the practise of homophily, captured through metadata, and used to imply connectivity and alliance by means of inference through the informational transfer of ideas through social media. 

Increasing and Visualising Meme Effectiveness


The Internet provides the ideal platform to disseminate messages which could potentially sway the opinions and behaviour of people. The ease, convenience, and transmission capabilities of the Internet facilitate the seamless transfer and replication of messages at a rapid speed.  Memes are popular ideas, messages, or styles that can be used as narrative networks to create influence. Social networking sites on the Internet are being used to rapidly send out memes.  However, in order for a meme to become popular it is imperative that the message initially captures the attention of users. This paper proposes a framework of high-level factors that can help increase the effectiveness of a meme.  Furthermore, the visualisation of meme proliferation is studied.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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