PSYOP, CYBER, and Internet Influence: Firing Digital Bullets


With the ubiquitous nature of the Internet, social media, and their continued exponential growth across society, it is necessary to comprehensively understand these platforms to engage threat networks at home and abroad. Undergirding all web-based actions, however, is human behaviour. Therefore, understanding human behaviour and the dynamic range of characteristics, actions, and attributes that are influenced by culture and context, for web-based offensive and defensive actions, is an ever-evolving niche skill. As such, non-kinetic activities and change efforts, especially in the cyber domain, require cross-cultural competence and experience in addition to any cyber capability.

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance and Electromagnetic Warfare Methods for Cyber Signature Production: A Conceptual Model


The purpose of this paper is to offer a methodology using the already mature signature production capabilities offered within the intelligence and electromagnetic warfare fields to develop a similar capability for cyber operators. Not only will the tools and TTPs assist in target and signature production, but they will also make attribution much easier by capturing the common location, profile, and parametric data necessary to identify and to verify adversary identities. In the information related capability (IRC) disciplines of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) and electromagnetic warfare (EW), signature production based on parametric data, adversary tactics, techniques, procedures (TTPs), and methodologies have long been the operational answer to the attribution and targeting malaise. 

Persistent Engagement and the Private Sector


The concepts of ‘persistent engagement’ and ‘defend forward’ signify a shift in how the U.S. employs its military cyber capabilities. These new concepts reorient U.S. Cyber Command from a reactive response force to a proactive force with continuous engagement that operates outside U.S. military networks to discover and expose adversary activity as well as to execute actions before they harm U.S. national interests. Persistent engagement can form the basis for a whole-of-nation cyber strategy if the private sector is a central player, rather than an afterthought.

Reflexive Control and Cognitive Vulnerability in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election


This research seeks to uncover the mechanisms of Russian reflexivecontrol by examining its function during 2016 US presidential elections. Security analysts and US government officialhave asserted that Russia used reflexive control to influencethis election; however, there is little discussion on how this technique cognitively interacted with the American public.

Integrating Cyber-Intelligence Analysis and Active Cyber-Defence Operations


The world is experiencing a continuous state of cyber insecurity. Despite continual development of cyber-security technology, the power balance between attacker and network defender has remained largely unchanged. While the cyber-security community is attempting to change this stalemate by developing active cyber-defence tactics and emphasizing cyber-threat intelligence, these efforts remain incomplete. A synthesis of the Diamond Model of Intrusion Analysis  and  Robert  Lee’s  Active  Cyber  Defense  Cycle  will  demonstrate  that  integrating structured intelligence-analysis techniques into active cyber-defence operations has the potential to alter the power balance between attacker and defender.

Dynamic Cyber Defence Framework


There are flaws in the current approaches in cyber defence as they are generally static in nature and fortress-based. They are thus not flexible in dealing with variations of attacks or with zero-day attacks. To address this issue, researchers have looked into dynamic cyber defence. However, the available approaches are either only about strategies or only about tactics. 

Building a Conceptual Framework for Cyber’s Effect on National Security


Cyber changes everything; cyber changes nothing. That important, yet unhelpful, truism captures the state of debate concerning the effects of cyber technologies on national security. This ‘either/or’ pathology stems from the lack of a conceptual framework. Thankfully, this is changing. The Department of Defense’s 2015 cyber strategy presents an understanding of the strategic environment. Admiral Rogers’ 2015 vision and guidance for U.S. Cyber Command captures how cyber changes military art. Herein lies the foundation for building a conceptual framework. Based on these documents and general strategic theory, seven dicta for the further development of a conceptual framework are offered.

Cyberspace—Making Some Sense of It All


This paper provides a framework describing the characteristics and implications of cyberspace which the author defines as the meld of technology, people, and the procedures that bind the two. Taken in sum, these elements comprise a dynamic environment that hosts a global information repository of incalculable value and the means to inform and coordinate the actions of individuals, governments, critical infrastructure, and militaries.

Educating and Training Soldiers for Information Operations


Military Training and Education is evolving because of the growing influence of Information Operations (IO) and Information Warfare (IW).  This influence has grown from the tremendous changes in both technology and social issues. Traditional military training has dealt with key elements such as operational concepts of war, doctrine and law; leadership; combat skills; weapons skills; and operating effectively under stress.

Cyber Macht: Laying the Groundwork for a New Comprehensive Academic Theory


The authors outline a comprehensive academic theory on Cyber Macht (Cyber Power) that updates Soft Power or Noopolitik and includes elements of Information Operations (IO) and the practical aspects of diplomacy and warfare. Centered on communication paths and changes in connectivity and focused around the theme that power is now globally distributed because of huge increases in 1) access to information for people around the world and 2)their ability to influence events far beyond previous ranges, this theory references power and influence operations.

Virtual Non-State Actors as Clausewitzian Centers of Gravity: An Examination for Sensemaking, Elaboration and Discussion


Against traditional interpretations of Clausewitzian centers of gravity, we examine the characteristics and behaviors of Non-State Actors (NSAs) operating in virtual space. Possessing disparate aims; ‘virtual NSAs’ (VNSAs) increasingly affect the geopolitical battle-space from diplomacy to kinetic warfare. This paper examines the ways in which VNSAs create spheres of influence, manipulate publics, and form a hardened constraints-set for strategic and operational planning. What are some functional categories that may be applied to the creation of taxonomy when examining VNSAs? This paper examines the qualities of VNSAs themselves so that Center of Gravity (COG) analysis, when relevant, is accurately applied.

Global Influence and Cyber Macht


This paper focuses on Global Influence and investigates the phenomena that the ability to influence events no longer resides primarily at the national or governmental level. Instead, small groups of people and even individuals with a potent message and a well-chosen audience are now able to broadcast their message, excite a population, and even initiate an attack.  No overall theory on power has emerged in the information era because Cyber Macht  is an idea that supports so many disparate academic areas. The authors attempt to lay the foundation for the formation of basic concepts for a new Cyber Macht theory.

Educating and Training Soldiers for Information Operations


Military Training and Education is evolving because of the growing influence of Information Operations (IO) and Information Warfare (IW). This influence has grown from the tremendous changes in both technology and social issues. While military technology has changed from stones to cannons to silicon-based weapons, the basic curriculum for soldiers in some cases has not changed for centuries. Traditional training and combat skills often do not match the modern battle field. Modern soldiers must not only be traditional warriors; they must be competent in information operations and information warfare. This paper addresses how to initiate this integration.

Building Future Generations of Elite Cyber Professionals (CNODP)


With the increase in cyber attacks, defending America’s networks is one of the primary Department of Defense challenges in the 21st century. It is a national imperative to have elite cyber-warfare forces trained and ready to protect the country’s National Security Systems and critical infrastructure against attacks in cyberspace. To that end, the National Security Agency has created the Computer Network Operations Development Program (CNODP), a highly effective cyber-defense workforce-training program. The CNODP is NSA’s premier vehicle for developing skilled civilian and military personnel into highly effective cyber warriors and capability creators who build on their degrees in computer science, electrical and computer engineering, mathematics, and information assurance. Rotational work assignments provide program participants with challenging technical experiences in multiple locations, missions, and disciplines, as well as continual and enduring networking and mentorship within the broader Computer Network Operations community.

Securing the Cloud


This paper will review cloud technology utilized to support the Intelligence Community and will specifically address the National Security Agency’s research into vulnerabilities and risks related to cloud-based systems. Current implementation plans will be discussed for a multi- agency private cloud architecture that is under development. The paper will also review security challenges for a cloud architecture and will address specific technologies, such as data tagging, digital policy management, encryption, identity and access management, and auditing, along with intrusion detection and prevention.

Changing the Future of Cyber-Situational Awareness


The proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) devices will change the face of cyber situational awareness from one focused on centralizing and homogenizing data feeds to one struggling to identify triggers from inordinate amounts of data. IoT devices, anticipated to grow to 20-40 billion by 2020, will both increase the potential visibility and granularity of cyber situational awareness and will significantly complicate the effort. The sheer increase in communications will raise the noise floor and will force more advanced analytics and data parsing to identify appropriate triggers. In addition to the influx of data and traffic, IoT devices also have the potential to introduce server security concerns to any network.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.















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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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