Escalation

A Taxonomy of Norms in Cyberconflict for Government Policymakers

Abstract:

Cyberconflict provides a new set of challenges to the Law of Armed Conflict. The proposals in the recent Tallinn Manual 2.0 provide a good start, but they are incomplete and do not address important issues. Where laws are lacking, states adopt norms to provide consistency and deterrence. This article provides a broad taxonomy of cyberconflict norms for use by government policymakers, including norms for low-level cyberconflict, norms for starting cyberconflict, norms for conducting it, and norms for post-conflict operations. It also introduces the concept of ‘metanorms’, norms for handling other norms.

Some Thoughts on Deterrence in the Cyber Era

Abstract:

Although cyber is an increasingly important instrument of national policy for deterrence and coercion, our understanding of how it functions is still weak and underdeveloped. This article explores some traditional notions of deterrence that must be remembered and reinvigorated, and notes aspects peculiar to cyber that must also be explored. Traditional deterrence makes clear the importance of promises and the difficulty in telling what the other side values and fears, and how it sees the world. Cyber conflict poses special problems in the uncertainties and ambiguities involved in, and related to the lack of shared understandings about what would constitute escalation.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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