Command, Influence and Information in 3D Tactics


This paper has three objectives. Firstly, critically examine the triatic relationship between ‘Command’, ‘Influence’ and ‘Information’ in three dimensional (3D) tactics. Secondly, explain how this relationship enables the 3D tactics of rhizome manoeuvre.

Modelling Information Warfare as a Game


Game theory is one of the possible ways to study information warfare with mathematical models. This paper presents four example games which illustrate the different requirements for an effective playing strategy in information warfare. These games study, how a bold playing strategy can lead to domination, how a mixed playing strategy can reduce domination, how it can be useful to play a dominating strategy only part of the time, and how excessive domination can lead to rebels where all playing parties lose. This paper also describes meta-strategies whose goal is to modify the perceived costs and conditions of a game. This kind of perception management is closely related to the Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) loop.

Reflections on Information Age Air Warfare


The information age has produced some profound shifts in military power, and nowhere has this been more apparent than in the domain of air power. A digitized air force represents the most pronounced case study of the impact of information technology and networking on achievable combat effect. This paper will explore the defining relationships in information age air warfare, from the dual perspectives of function and resistance to an opponent’s use of information warfare strategies. The importance of Moore’s Law and sensor apertures in information gathering is discussed, the relationship between Boyd’s OODA loop, Metcalfe’s Law and Amdahl’s Law is explored for large military systems, and the relationships between the linear and lateral evolutionary potential of combat aircraft and their future utility is studied.

Causes and Effects of Perception Errors


This paper proposes that both Information Warfare attacks and non-intentional perception errors can be categorised as causes of misperception.  The causes of misperception are then analysed in the terms of Boyd’s OODA loop model to determine when they cause errors to occur.  The OODA loop model is then expanded to produce a theoretical model of the internal process of the Orientation step of the OODA loop.  One of these errors is then explained in greater detail with the new model.

2D Versus 3D Tactical Supremacy in Urban Operations


This paper revises Boyd’s OODA loop incorporating 3D tactics. 3D tactics is defined as tactics in the third dimension which is the space above and below ground level in land and urban operations. This paper investigates the key difference between 3D tactics and more conventional tactics, based on people thinking linearly, which in effect is a form of two-dimensional tactical analysis (2D Tactics). This problem is also fundamentally linked to developing a counter terrorism analysis applicable to mass gathering space in civil urban places, which is not adequately addressed in contemporary tactical theory; which however is addressed by Boyd’s OODA loop incorporating 3D tactics.

Specifying Functional Requirements for Simulating Professional Offensive Cyber Operations


Several nations are acquiring the capability for conducting professional offensive cyber operations to fight wars and combat crime and terrorism. They need to know how the attack process works, what resources are required, and how to command and control operations. Simulation is a powerful technology for gaining understanding about such issues. This article presents the functional requirements specification for an agent-based simulator of professional offensive cyber operations in a networked environment. Requirements cover the simulation infrastructure, including time handling, stochastic behaviour, modelling representation, interfacing, and simulation control. Cyber-specific use cases are grouped by stakeholder and phase of operation.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.


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