Cyber Warfare

Developing a Cyber Operations Computational Ontology

Abstract: 

Cyber operations lack models, methodologies, and mechanisms to describe relevant data and knowledge. This problem is directly reflected when cyber operations are conducted, and their effects assessed, and it can produce dissonance and disturbance in corresponding decision-making processes and communication between different military actors.

Informing Active Cyber Defence with Realistic Adversarial Behaviour

Abstract:

In this paper, a cross-disciplinary approach is employed to inform the planning efforts of active cyber defence for military leaders. Militaries across the world are operating under the assumption that cyberspace infrastructure is vulnerable, and potentially compromised, at any given time. Therefore, proactive measures are being taken to secure critical systems, and these measures are known as active cyber defence. In this work, a dataset of empirically observed adversary behaviour activities, collected at the 2015 North American International Cyber Summit (NAICS), is added to an existing cyber warfare simulation framework.

Set Your Drones to Stun: Using Cyber-Secure Quadcopters to Disrupt Active Shooters

Abstract:

This paper will examine pairing the autonomous precision-flight capabilities of Micro- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with the growing capability of Artificial Intelligence (specifically AI based on neuromorphic computing systems) to field cyber-secure, active-shooter response systems to counter the active-shooter threat to civilian ‘soft targets’, such as schools or train stations. This paper proposes a pilot to demonstrate the feasibility of disrupting terrorist attacks with a micro-UAV, armed with less than lethal weapons, for instance, a stun gun, where such a ‘stun-drone’ is part of an emergency-response system that is trustworthy and correctly engages only active shooters.

Utilising Journey Mapping and Crime Scripting to Combat Cybercrime and Cyber Warfare Attacks

Abstract:

This paper discusses ways in which utilising methods from typically non-cyber disciplines, business and criminology, can successfully be applied to the cyber domain to aid the fight  against  and  the  prevention  of  cyber-attacks,  including  those  used  in  cyber  warfare. Through the provision of a visual representation, this paper clarifies how journey mapping and crime scripting can help build an understanding of the steps criminals or adversaries in general undertake during the execution of a cybercrime or cyber-warfare attack.

The impact of Increase in Broadband Access on South African National Security and the Average Citizen

Abstract

South Africa is the entry point to Africa and with the impending increase in broadband access, the average citizen could in future be used as a hub for launching cyber attacks on the rest of the world. This will pose a national security threat not only to South Africa but also to the rest of the world. This exponential increase in internet broadband will also result in an increase in security threats. A national security generic framework is used to analyse these threats and the impact on the average citizen with some proposals of addressing the threats.

The Myth of Cyberterrorism

ABSTRACT

Media and emerging experts often misapply the term ‘cyberterrorism’ portraying cyber attacks as a separate form of terrorism or a new terrorism. It is simply the terrorists’ use of Computer Network Operations (CNO) as a tactic in their operations. It is important to understand the psychology of terrorism in order to evaluate the plausibility of cyberterrorism. Terrorists exercise cyber related capabilities, which are generally related in the media as extreme and exaggerated vignettes of cyberterrorism. These incidents include the popular Digital Pearl Harbor, the U.S. stock market crash, utilities infrastructure attack, and crashing airliners. Is there a likely and logical application of cyber related activities by a terrorists group in pursuit of their goals, or is simply hype by media, business, and self anointed experts?

Teaching Competitive Intelligence and Cyberwarfare in a Business Context

ABSTRACT

Competitive intelligence has risen in profile over the past decade to become a key contributor to the survival of organizations operating in highly competitive environments. It is seen as an essential management tool in the current global marketplace. Several authors claim there is a need for the inclusion of competitive intelligence in Masters level studies however the area is rarely included in educational programs offered by tertiary institutions. This paper describes a course in competitive intelligence and cyberwarfare offered within IT-related Masters programs at Curtin University. The dominant teaching tool used is scenario work simulating realistic organizational situations incorporating competitive intelligence and cyberwarfare activities.

Dominating the Attacker: Use of Intelligence and Counterintelligence in Cyberwarfare

ABSTRACT

In the event of cyberwarfare the defender must harden the attacker’s target by secure design,
a defined security perimeter, and a suite of tools. Indeed, the defender must be ever alert and ready to react to attack. Over many years, defenders in traditional warfare have learned to predict the style, magnitude and possible outcomes of a physical attack, and how to deceive and confuse an attacker with the objective of changing the outcome. Perhaps the cyberwarfare defender can take a similar approach, by employing intelligence and counterintelligence techniques that are superior to those of the attacker.

Information Operations from an Asian Perspective: A Comparative Analysis

ABSTRACT

This article is a comparative study of the practice of state-sponsored influence activities in its various forms (namely propaganda, public diplomacy, psychological operations, public affairs, cyber warfare, electronic warfare and so on) in selected Asian countries (China, Taiwan, Thailand and Japan). It highlights the state of Asian development, differences in concepts, organization and application as compared to the Western models that today dominate discussions on information operations and influence activity.  By doing so, it provides alternative ways of approaching Information Operations (IO) that might contribute to the generation of challenges and solutions facing today’s policy makers. Finally, it will serve to broaden the body of knowledge in influence activities to include both Eastern and Western viewpoints. 

An Approach to Teaching Cyber Warfare Tools and Techniques

ABSTRACT

This paper looks at an approach to teaching offensive and defensive skills in cyberwarfare. The teaching strategy presented has been developed in an active defense education environment. Action learning is an important facet of this cyberwarfare learning environment allowing students to experience application of the theory and reflect on the learning process whilst gaining proficiency in the tools and techniques.

Principles of Information Warfare

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the fundamental concepts needed to understand the broad spectrum of activities encompassed by the Information Warfare phenomenon. It provides a theoretical background to these activities, and examines the context in which these are most effective.

American Perspectives on Cyber and Security: Coining the Linguistic Tradition

ABSTRACT

Politicians can no longer escape commenting on cyber issues, which has made cyber discourse part of everyday politics. This article approaches political statements on 'cyber' and analyzes cyber discourse in the context of information operations. The empiricism of the article consists of language analysis, which covers both structural and semantic aspects of political cyber discourse. The results show that cyber is a synonym to threat: The U.S. has the identity of the vulnerable and technologically outdated, while the enemy is skilled and resourceful. This normalization of threat has become part of cyber discourse and legitimizes the exceptional security measures.

Towards a Theory of Just Cyberwar

ABSTRACT

The text applies just war theory to cyberwar from a philosophical perspective. After defining the concept of cyberwar it discusses the ethical criteria of the traditional jus ad bellum and jus in bello, before emphasizing the need for a Kantian jus post bellum. The aim is to reach several ethical norms which may ultimately lead to new international legal norms (an international treaty inspired by jus post bellum) or allow to assess the adaptation of existing legal norms.

Virtual Non-State Actors as Clausewitzian Centers of Gravity: An Examination for Sensemaking, Elaboration and Discussion

ABSTRACT

Against traditional interpretations of Clausewitzian centers of gravity, we examine the characteristics and behaviors of Non-State Actors (NSAs) operating in virtual space. Possessing disparate aims; ‘virtual NSAs’ (VNSAs) increasingly affect the geopolitical battle-space from diplomacy to kinetic warfare. This paper examines the ways in which VNSAs create spheres of influence, manipulate publics, and form a hardened constraints-set for strategic and operational planning. What are some functional categories that may be applied to the creation of taxonomy when examining VNSAs? This paper examines the qualities of VNSAs themselves so that Center of Gravity (COG) analysis, when relevant, is accurately applied.

Retrospective Evaluation of Cyber-security Strategic Reports for the Next Two Decades: From 2000 to 2030

ABSTRACT

Retrospective taxonomical evaluation of the strategic cyber-security reports of the last decade is important to appreciate how the very concept of Cyberspace has evolved along with other important concepts and definitions such as cyber security, cyber terrorism, cyber warfare, and information warfare. For that reason, this paper first evaluates, compares, and contrasts seven cyber-security strategy reports covering the decade from 2002 to 2011. Secondly, armed with the strategic cyber-security reports of the last decade, the paper attempts to ascertain whether the near future cyber-security strategies will continue to be valid.

An Annotated Bibliographical Survey on Cyber Intelligence for Cyber Intelligence Officers

ABSTRACT

Since 2008, Cyberspace is officially regarded as a distinct military domain, along with land, sea, and air for many countries (Goel 2011). The nature of warfare in cyberspace is radically different than traditional warfare: the attacks are more remote, stealthy, and detecting the identity of the adversary may be impossible (Greengard 2010). Nations need intelligence in this relatively new domain of war in order to know the strengths and weaknesses of other nations and themselves. This paper presents a literature survey on computer science methodologies that can be useful for intelligence officers working in cyberspace.

Unrestricted Warfare versus Western Traditional Warfare: A Comparative Study

ABSTRACT

The rise of the cyber dimension as well as the emergence of new strategic/economic leaders in the world, like China, is currently changing not only the face of the world but also threatens to upset the strategic balance in the world. In this context, the concept of warfare itself must be redefined. This paper seeks to analyse the concept of new warfare precisely, and then to discuss developments in the new art of warfare, and, finally, to establish a redefinition of the stakes.

Towards the Establishment of an African Cyber-Army

ABSTRACT

Cybersecurity has become a critical element of the national security of countries. A cyber-army is a group of soldiers highly skilled in information technology with cyber skills. Cyber-armies are the unseen military cyber power which countries should employ to maintain national cybersecurity. A cyber-army has the ability to launch cyberattacks and collect information in order to gain a strategic military advantage. In this paper, selected cyber-armies are compared. The focus is on the establishment of an African Cyber-Army to defend and protect cyber sovereignty. An African Cyber-Army has to serve nations whose citizens often have low levels of cybersecurity awareness in conjunction with rapidly growing rates of access to cyberspace.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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