Volume 17, Issue 2

Volume 17, Issue 2 Editorial

Stylized Image of the Word Editorial

Spring 2018

Information is power. How a nation uses that power determines how effective that country can be in influencing world politics. The use of information to affect international relations has a long and varied history: in the past, governments or leadership elites would control information, thereby exercising power over their people. Historically, the primary elements of power included military, economic, and diplomatic factors; in the 21st century, the control of information is rapidly assuming a place of primacy in the conduct of foreign policy. However, the tremendous advances in computer technology, telecommunications, and perception management over the last decade have forever shattered the monopoly of control governments once held with regard to information. Because nations no longer control the flow of information, they can only attempt to coordinate its use as best as possible.

An Examination of the Operational Requirements of Weaponised Malware

Abstract:

Malware is often used in cyberconflict scenarios. Both nation-states and non-nation threat actor groups utilise malware to execute cyberattacks. The current study examines the general role of weaponised malware in cyber conflicts and outlines the operational requirements for such weaponisation of malware. Operational needs as well as ethical considerations, including target discrimination, are examined. One goal of this study is to propose a particular taxonomy for malware that is oriented to appropriate selection of weaponised malware for cyberwarfare scenarios.

Informing Active Cyber Defence with Realistic Adversarial Behaviour

Abstract:

In this paper, a cross-disciplinary approach is employed to inform the planning efforts of active cyber defence for military leaders. Militaries across the world are operating under the assumption that cyberspace infrastructure is vulnerable, and potentially compromised, at any given time. Therefore, proactive measures are being taken to secure critical systems, and these measures are known as active cyber defence. In this work, a dataset of empirically observed adversary behaviour activities, collected at the 2015 North American International Cyber Summit (NAICS), is added to an existing cyber warfare simulation framework.

On Levels of Deterrence in the Cyber Domain

Abstract:

Deterrence is a coercive strategy to avoid escalation to direct conflicts. In the Cold War, nuclear deterrence was successfully used to prevent a war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. In the cyber domain, which is man-made and virtual, how deterrence can be effectively applied is one of today’s biggest challenges.

Iterative Analysis of Competing Hypotheses to Overcome Cognitive Biases in Cyber Decision-Making

Abstract:

This paper aims at improving the incident-response process by studying how cognitive biases such as the base rate fallacy, confirmation, and hindsight can affect decision-making in the cyber realm. This paper argues that cognitive biases negatively influence the performance of cyber incident response, as they have been shown to affect intelligence analysis.

Set Your Drones to Stun: Using Cyber-Secure Quadcopters to Disrupt Active Shooters

Abstract:

This paper will examine pairing the autonomous precision-flight capabilities of Micro- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with the growing capability of Artificial Intelligence (specifically AI based on neuromorphic computing systems) to field cyber-secure, active-shooter response systems to counter the active-shooter threat to civilian ‘soft targets’, such as schools or train stations. This paper proposes a pilot to demonstrate the feasibility of disrupting terrorist attacks with a micro-UAV, armed with less than lethal weapons, for instance, a stun gun, where such a ‘stun-drone’ is part of an emergency-response system that is trustworthy and correctly engages only active shooters.

Enabling Successful Artificial Intelligence Implementation in the Department of Defense

Abstract: 

The Pentagon sees Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a key enabler of future military operations. However, to secure the potential promise of AI, the Department of Defense (DoD) must address a number of challenges including technological diversity, cultural silos, and insufficient skillsets. The onset of what is perceived to be the next global ‘arms’ race will position ’the winner’ as the top superpower that could define and dictate future directions and priorities across the globe. 

Projected Territoriality: A Case Study of the Infrastructure of Russian Digital Borders

Abstract:

This  article  attempts  to  demonstrate  how  territoriality  can  be  projected  into cyberspace with respect to the infrastructure of a country. It is a case study of the delineation, protection, and control processes of Russia’s so-called digital borders. By combining analysis of border studies, information technology studies, and Russian studies, this article provides an interdisciplinary overview of the infrastructure of the Russian segment of the Internet and examines the principles and practises behind the Russian implementation of the concept of a national  segment  of  the Internet as an infrastructural element of delineating digital borders and achieving a functional digital sovereignty.

Critical Infrastructure: You Get What You Pay For

Abstract:

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have proliferated into multiple commercial sectors,  including  critical  infrastructure  applications.  PLCs  often  manage  resources  that  offer high-impact targets but with a lackadaisical treatment of security—a recipe for trouble. This paper proposes a misuser-driven approach for PLC assessment. 

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

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