Do Hostile Information Operations Really Have the Intended Effects? A Literature Review

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific basis for claiming any effect of foreign information operations. The literature on information operations is reviewed, as well as other kinds of persuasive communication (advertising, risk and health communication) that aims to change attitudes or behaviour. Most research indicates that persuasive communication in general has little effect on receiver attitudes and/or behaviour. Some hypothetical strategies that may increase the effect are formulated, such as hiding the sender’s intent, sending messages not too distant from the receiver’s present views, or using the emotional, rather than the rational, route.


AUTHORS

Photo of Claes Wallenius

Swedish Defence University
Department of Security, Strategy, and Leadership
Karlstad, Sweden

Claes Wallenius holds a PhD in psychology. He is presently an associate professor at the Swedish Defence University. His research interests include leadership, decision-making, psychological operations, and the changing political conditions for the defence sector.

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Keywords

A

AI
APT

C

C2
C2S
CDX
CIA
CIP
CPS

D

DNS
DoD
DoS

I

IA
ICS

S

SOA

X

XRY

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