Introduction of Random Forest Classifier to ZigBee Device Network Authentication Using RF-DNA Fingerprinting

ABSTRACT

The decentralized architecture of ZigBee ad-hoc networks creates unique security challenges to ensure only authentic devices are granted network access. Non-parametric Random Forest (RndF) and Multi-Class AdaBoost (MCA) ensemble classifiers were introduced with RF-Distinct Native Attribute (RF-DNA) fingerprinting to enhance device authentication performance. Correct classification (%C) performance is improved up to 24% over other classifiers, with 10% improvement at the lowest SNR = 0.0 dB. Network intrusion tests correctly rejected 31/36 rogue devices vs. 25/36 and 28/36 with previously used classifiers. The key benefit of ensemble method processing is improved rogue rejection in noisy environments–gains of up to Gs = 18.0 dB are realized over other classifiers. Collectively considering demonstrated %C and rogue rejection capability, the use of ensemble methods improves ZigBee network authentication and enhances anti-spoofing protection afforded by RF-DNA fingerprinting.


AUTHORS

Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
United States

Hiren J. Patel is a Computer Engineering PhD candidate at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT). He received his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois-Chicago in 2003, and his Master of Science in Electrical Engineering with an emphasis in VLSI from AFIT in 2009. He is a member of the Tau Beta Pi engineering society. His current research interests include physical layer exploitation, side-channel analysis for cryptographic systems, pattern recognition and high performance computing.

Photo of Dr. Michael A. Temple

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Air Force Institute of Technology Wright-Patterson Air Force Base 
Dayton, OH, U.S.A

Dr. Michael A. Temple is a Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Air Force Institute of Technology.  He earned bachelor’s (1985) and master’s (1986) degrees in Engineering from Southern Illinois University, and a doctorate from the Air Force Institute of Technology (1993). His research interests include passive emitter identification, and tracking and locating using RF Distinct Native Attribute (RF-DNA) Fingerprinting. Recently, he has participated in the expansion of RF- DNA fundamentals to support additional Wired Signal DNA (WS-DNA) and Constellation/Correlation Based DNA (CB-DNA) applications.  His primary research emphasis remains focused on commercial communication devices with reliable, human-like device/signal discrimination achieved for various signals (Wi-Fi, WiMAX, ZigBee, ZWave, Ethernet, and Insteon).  His sponsored research activity continues in Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I), radar signal/signature processing, and Electronic Warfare (EW).

Riverside Research, Cyber Center of Excellence, Beavercreek, OH
United States

Rusty O. Baldwin is an Associate Professor of Computer Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. He received a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering (cum laude) from New Mexico State University in 1987, a Master of Science in Computer Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1992, and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1999. He served 23 years in the United States Air Force. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Ohio, a member of Eta Kappa Nu, and a Senior Member of IEEE. His research interests include computer communication networks, embedded and wireless networking, computer security, information assurance, and reconfigurable computing systems.

Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
United States

Benjamin W. Ramsey is a Computer Science PhD candidate at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT). He received his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from North Carolina State University in 2004, and his Master of Science in Electrical Engineering with an emphasis on wireless networks from AFIT in 2009. He is a member of the Tau Beta Pi engineering society and Eta Kappa Nu. His research interests include wireless communication networks, network security, and critical infrastructure protection.

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