Backfires: White, Black and Grey

ABSTRACT

Sometimes the use of force can backfire on perpetrators, generating increased support for the opponent. Perpetrators may try to turn this process against their targets, by attributing their actions to the targets, as in black operations, or by using an ambiguous event as a pretext for action. These techniques can be understood as different uses of backfire dynamics, by analogy to white, black and grey propaganda. Various examples are used to illustrate this framework.


AUTHORS

School of Social Sciences, Media and Communication, University of Wollongong
Australia

Truda Gray has a sociology degree from the University of New South Wales and is completing a law degree at the University of Wollongong. She is studying corporate programs for engineering consent.

School of Social Sciences, Media and Communication, University of Wollongong
Australia

Brian Martin is an associate professor in the School of Social Sciences, Media and Communication at the University of Wollongong, Australia. He is the author of twelve books and hundreds of articles in a range of areas including war and peace, scientific controversies, dissent and information issues.

Journal of Information Warfare

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

Quick Links

View the latest issue of JIW.

Latest Edition

Purchase a subscription to JIW.

Subscribe

Keywords

C

C2
C2S
CDX
CIA
CIP
CPS

D

DNS
DoD
DoS

I

IA
ICS

S

SOA

X

XRY

Quill Logo

The definitive publication for the best and latest research and analysis on information warfare, information operations, and cyber crime. Available in traditional hard copy or online.

SUBSCRIBE NOW

Get in touch

  • Journal of Information Warfare
    114 Ballard Street
    Yorktown, VA
    23690
  • 757.871.3949
  • jiw@gbpts.com