Information Influence in Society’s Information Environment: An Empirical Analysis Using the Grounded Theory

Abstract:

This paper investigates information influence in society’s Information Environment. The Grounded Theory approach was used to collect and to analyse the data. A conceptual framework of the thematic categories and item categories was developed on the basis of empirical evidence and past studies that reflect the findings of the field. The most fundamental components in this conceptual framework were six thematic categories (information influence, information operations, cyber operations, psychological operations, kinetic operations, and deception), their item categories, the items themselves, and the interrelationships between the thematic categories. The propositions regarding the thematic categories and the interrelationships between them showed 13 higher levels of abstractions of statements in the conceptual framework, which was a unique result of this study.


AUTHORS

Photo of Dr. (Tech.) Erja Mustonen-Ollila

University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä
Finland

Dr. (Tech.) Erja Mustonen-Ollila has previously published in top- and high-quality journals and conferences in the areas of information systems science, software engineering, knowledge management, hybrid information environment, and information environment. She has specialized in Ground Theory research methods and in the creation of conceptual frameworks of categories and their relationships in order to visualise results.

Photo of Dr. Martti Lehto

University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä
Finland

Dr. Martti Lehto, (Military Sciences), Col (GS) (ret.) works as a Professor (Cyber Security) in the University of Jyväskylä. He has over 40 years’ experience in C4ISR Systems in Finnish Defence Forces. Now, he is a cyber security and cyber defence researcher and teacher and the Pedagogical Director of the Cyber Security MSc. program. He is also adjunct professor in National Defence University in Air and Cyber Warfare. He has over 130 publications on the areas of C4ISR systems, cyber security and defence, information warfare, artificial intelligence, air power, and defence policy.

 

Photo of Jukka Heikkonen

Department of Future Technologies, University of Turku, Turku
Finland

Jukka Heikkonen has been a professor of computer science at the University of Turku, Finland, since 2009. His current research as the head of the Algorithms and Computational Intelligent (ACI) research group is related to data analytics, machine learning, and autonomous systems. He has worked at top-level research laboratories and Center of Excellences in Finland and international organizations (European Commission, Japan) and has led many international and national research projects. He has authored more than 150 scientific articles.

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Keywords

C

C2
C2S
CDX
CIA
CIP
CPS

D

DNS
DoD
DoS

I

IA
ICS

S

SOA

X

XRY

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